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Diabetes and Muscle Fatigue
Although tiredness, muscle pain, cramps and reduced muscle strength are common signs of ageing; however, the problem seems more pronounced in diabetics. Chronic fatigue and weakness of muscles hinders a person from self-managing their life. Uncontrolled blood sugar levels lead to neuropathy. Peripheral resistance to insulin causes inability of sugar to enter muscle fibre and hence relative lack of energy. Together these factors cause low muscle power and fatigue. Muscle cramp is involuntary contraction of skeletal muscles that may be a general event in day-to-day life; but diabetics experience chronic muscular cramps for multiple reasons. Frequent muscle cramp incapacitates them from performing routine tasks. Glucose is a prime substrate needed for proper muscle contraction and relaxation, channelized by electrolytes exchange. High glucose levels slow down the blood circulation incapacitate the muscles from acquiring optimum oxygen and nutrients. In addition, muscle fatigue is also caused due to blood vessel inflammation.
Diabetes and Wounds
Foot ulcers are the most common trauma among the diabetic population across the globe. About 10 to 15% of Diabetics may suffer from an ulcer at some point. The ulcers in a diabetic tend to heal very slowly or not heal at all. Many factors cause and aggravate the ulcers in a diabetic. A diabetic may not realise an injury or pressure due lack of sensation because of neuropathy. On the other hand, spread of infection is rapid in high sugar levels. More over the wound healing process is quite slow due to impaired blood flow.
Diabetes and Gastro-intestinal Problems
Three-forth of the diabetics patients complain of gastro-intestinal (GI) problems. Generally, patients with diabetic neuropathy and nephropathy suffer from one or the other form of GI ailments. From the oral cavity to the ano-rectal region, any part can be affected because of chronic high blood sugar; the common cause being the malfunction of the nerves that innervate the GI tract and control all the functions of the GI tract. The enteric nervous (Autonomic) system enables the timely movement, digestion and assimilation of food. As a result of an autonomic neuropathy, the stimulation, inhibition, function and motility is impaired in the digestive tract.
Weight Issues in Diabetics
Insulin secretion and Diabetes have a direct bearing on the body weight as it has a direct bearing on the body metabolism. In Type 1 diabetes, wherein the pancreas does not make adequate insulin to drive the glucose metabolism, often results in weight loss as the body utilizes the fat and muscle mass to provide energy. In addition the excessive glucose build-up in bloodstream due to lack of insulin is drained out along with the urine, amounting to calorie loss and muscle fatigue. Kids or youth suffering from type 1 diabetes apparently witness weight loss despite having normal diet or rather no changes in the falling BMI even after increasing the calorie intake.
Overweight and Precipitation of Diabetes
Overweight is a health hazard in itself, let alone the risk factors of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disorders it entails. Obesity and overweight elevate the occurrence of high blood pressure, unhealthy cholesterol deposition and high blood sugar levels manifold. Overweight is an outcome of unhealthy lifestyle, stress and excessive consumption of food in large amounts and certain hormone issues. BMI (Basal metabolic index) is the first way to check if a person is overweight based on their age and height. Another important parameter is the waist size. Nearly 80% of diabetics are obese or weight beyond their normal range. Insulin helps carry sugar into every cell where it is converted into energy through the metabolic pathway. Overweight or obesity result in slow yet drastic changes in the cell surface over time. With age, the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in overweight people rises phenomenally.
Diabetic Retinopathy – Complications & Treatment
Diabetic retinopathy is a progressive co-morbid condition, causing damage to the retinal tissue in the eye due to long-term diabetes. The cells in the eyes are quite susceptible to impaired carbohydrate metabolism, in the absence/ resistance to insulin in diabetics. Retina is the light sensing layer that works like a digital camera by recognizing the image and transmitting the same to the brain. Due to chronic high blood sugar levels, the tiny blood vessels in the retina start to leak, depositing blood and other fluids in the retinal tissue, resulting in swelling and blurred vision called proliferative retinopathy. The condition further results in blurred image. In the initial phase, the changes are non-proliferative wherein only the minute blood vessels giving nourishment to the retina begin to alter in size and shape. If the condition remains untreated, there are high risks of a diabetic patient losing their eyesight due to severe retinopathy. Hypertension, which is commonly associated in diabetics, may further add Hypertensive retinopathy changes leading to further loss of vision.
Diabetic Nephropathy – Complications & Treatment
Diabetic nephropathy is a progressive complication of long standing uncontrolled diabetes, affecting people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. More than 40% of the reported cases of renal failure, CKD and ESRD are those who have been suffering from diabetes. Each kidney comprises of millions of nephrons, the basic unit that filters the blood of the waste materials, removes excess water and maintains the electrolyte balance. This is transported outside the body in the form of urine. In long-term diabetics, especially in uncontrolled diabetics these nephrons fail to reabsorb the filtered protein, which passes down the fine tubules. This excess protein clogs them and leads to closure of that filtering unit. A diabetic patient suffering from neuropathy experiences annual creatinine clearance loss of 8-10 points, even while their blood pressure is completely under control. The process of damage to the nephrons is rather slow, yet alarming due to its risks of irreversible damage to the kidneys, finally leading to morbid consequences.
Diabetic Erectile Dysfunction Complications & Treatment
Physical proximity is an integral part of a mature adult relationship, absence of which gives way to certain amount of emptiness and insecurity, more often in men. Men consider their self-esteem tattered when their manhood is impaired. The extent of desire differs from one person to another, varies with age and changes with time and mood. Generally, men come across problems in sexual activity at some point or the other, which can eventually normalize in a matter of time, however, almost 35‐75% of diabetic men experience an impaired sex life due to prolonged high blood sugar levels. Diabetes is a major cause of erectile dysfunction (E D ) in men. ED in diabetics is caused due to constant high levels of blood sugar that damages the nerves (Autonomic Neuropathy), impairs sensations and reduces blood flow to the penis due to atherosclerosis.
Diabetic Cardiomyopathy – Complications & Treatment
Diabetes largely brings along with it many cardiovascular complications. With increasing incidences of diabetes, the figures have not been encouraging, elevating the hazards of heart attack and congestive cardiac failure. More than 65% of the older diabetic population suffer from heart diseases, 16% of which end up fatally. Due to long-term high blood sugar levels, the blood vessels and nerves controlling the heart functions are damaged. Diabetics are at a high risk of developing coronary heart disease ( CHDs ) and congestive heart failure.
Diabetic Neuropathy – Complications & Treatment
Among all the known diabetic complications, one of the most severe is diabetic neuropathy, a condition characterized by debilitating nerve damage due to high blood sugar. Nearly 70% of diabetics around the world suffer from some form of nerve damage or the other, with the risk increasing with age and chronic diabetes. Nerve cells are completely dependent on glucose metabolism for effective functioning, in absence of which, the cells cannot function at their optimum and later degenerate and die. Although, the nerves of any part of the body can be damaged due to impaired glucose metabolism; however, the nerves of hands and legs are the most affected, since those are the longest nerves.
What is Diabetes?
Diabetes, a lifelong disease and often referred to as Diabetes mellitus, is a condition in which the blood sugar levels are high, either due to lack of insulin or due to resistance of the of body cells to respond to the insulin produced. Glucose is a part of most of the food items we consume and insulin is the hormone that helps breakdown that glucose for the body cells to gain energy for its various functions. Pancreas, situated behind the stomach, is the gland responsible for the release of insulin, which in turn facilitates the storage and usage of sugar and fat from the ingested food. Insulin also helps the body cells to absorb sugar from bloodstream. The sugar is broken down into energy molecules in the cells, the process is known as carbohydrate metabolism. The sugar is instantly converted into energy or stored for use later. The energy released from sugar acts as fuel to carry out different physiological functions.
Diabetes – Causes and Symptoms
Diabetes is the inability of the body to either produce insulin properly or develops resistance to insulin. Insulin is a critical hormone that catalyzes the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats from food to convert them into energy. Insulin is the key to the entire metabolic pathway. Hence, any derangement in Insulin production or development of peripheral resistance can lead to development of Diabetes.
Diabetes and Co-morbid Complications
When the body tissues fail to utilize the sugar, the blood sugar levels rise drastically, causing diabetes. Having diabetes elevates the risk of other life threatening complications namely stroke, cardiovascular disorders and many other diseases. Apart from difficulties to maintain normal glucose levels, diabetics have to deal with many other health problems. The high blood sugar is in itself the root cause of all other complications.
Diabetes and Metabolism
Diabetes is the inability of the body to either produce sufficient insulin or use the released insulin due to peripheral resistance. Insulin is a critical hormone produced by the pancreas that catalyzes the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats from food to energy; hence, Insulin is the key to the entire metabolic pathway. When the body cells develop resistance to insulin or if there is lack of insulin, the blood sugar levels rise drastically. Sugar metabolism is the biochemical process through which the carbohydrate from the consumed food is converted into energy, which is further used in various other cellular and physiological functions for the body to grow and sustain.
Incidence and Prevalence of Diabetes in India
Diabetes is slowly gaining an epidemic status in India with nearly 63 million of people suffering from the condition. In the year 2000, India stood on top of the list of global cases of diabetics. As per studies and researches, global diabetes population is predicted to double by 2030; almost 80 million of them will be from India itself. Indian sub-continent faces humungous burden of the expenses incurred by the disease and added uncertainty due to the growing incidence among the youth, thus affecting the country’s economic, social and other facets in more than one way. The proportion of morbidity and mortality because of diabetes, and associated complications are vast, posing enormous challenge not only on the families but also on the society and government too.
Management of Diabetes and Complications
Unlike other diseases, diabetes is a metabolic syndrome manifested because of multiple causes like genetic predisposition, age, weight and lifestyle issues, needless to mention its co-morbid complications. India presently has the largest numbers of Diabetics hence gaining the dubious distinction of Diabetic Capital of the World. In diabetes, the pancreatic beta cells lose capability to synthesize insulin or there may be development of peripheral insulin resistance. For diabetics, clinically suggested sugar range is 90-110 mg/dl on fasting and up to 180 mg/dl, two hours after a meal. A diabetic person can minimize co-morbid complications if the blood sugar level is managed within the specified range. Some of the practical and simple ways to manage diabetes are exercise, balanced and timely meals in smaller and frequent portions, in addition to medication.
Diabetes and Nerve Damage
Diabetes associated nerve damage is called diabetic neuropathy. Approximately 60% of the diabetic population suffer from the disorder without distinctive symptoms in certain cases and severe disability in others. Diabetes impairs the blood flow to smaller blood vessels that stimulate the nerves, thus limiting the blood supply and resulting in slow death of nerves, termed as ischemia. Diabetes is harmful for nerves in different ways and the risk stems from chronic high blood sugar levels. Uncontrolled blood sugar and hypertension tend to elevate the risk factors of neuropathy.
Diabetes Chronic Fatigue and Muscle Weakness
Diabetes, a global epidemic, affects almost 6% of the older people across the world, most of who complain of pervasive fatigue and distressed pain in muscles. Although tiredness, muscle pain and cramps, and other health problems are common signs of ageing however, the problem seems more pronounced in diabetics. Chronic fatigue and weakness of muscles hinders from self-managing the blood sugar levels. While the symptoms have become a common occurrence out of work overload, mental stress, sleeplessness and lack of adequate rest, pathologically diagnosed fatigue results from excessive blood sugar levels and neurological system disarray
Diabetes and Sexual Dysfunction
A relationship or marriage based on love and understanding is surreal, however the bond is consummated only through active sexual intimacy. Physical proximity is an integral part of a mature adult relationship and in the absence of fulfilment of which a void is created that gives way to rejection and insecurity. The extent of desire differs from one person to another, varies with age and changes with time. Diabetes could be a cause for sexual dysfunction in many individuals. Many people find the problem rather difficult to open up about and feel embarrassed to discuss, making it harder to identify the underlying causes and treatment options. Sexual dysfunction among diabetics is caused due to high levels of uncontrolled blood sugars that damages the nerves, impairs sensations and reduces blood flow to the sexual organs. Other co-morbid conditions such as bladder problems, heart conditions and prostrate surgery elevate the incidence of loss in libido
Diabetes and Uncontrolled Blood Sugar
Type 2 Diabetes, a silent killer, is pretty slow and hushed in action without any obvious symptoms in its initial years while the body tissues are already taking a toll because of underlying high levels of uncontrolled blood sugar. Although there maybe some telltale familiar signs, yet people choose to overlook until the tissues are in complete cusp of the disease. Diabetes if not controlled has humungous capacity of engulfing every organ with host of the problems, spread ubiquitously inside the body from eye to toe.
Diabetes and Foot Ulcer
Foot ulcer is a common and significant complication in diabetics that develops because of poorly controlled blood sugar, occurs almost in 15% of diabetics during some stage of their life. Infection, pain and ulcer are critical morbid conditions in people suffering from diabetes mellitus. Etiologically, most of the foot ulcers develop due to trauma unrecognized as a result of diabetic neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease. The injury in the superficial layers of skin cannot heal due to compromised blood flow leading to exposure of the internal layers of the skin to bacterial infection. Generally, the big toe and ball of the feet are the most susceptible regions to ulcers (as they take the maximum weight during walking), and if neglected can slowly dwell into the deeper layers, eventually infecting the bones too.Healing is compromised due to impaired blood supply and may remain a non-healing ulcer and gangrene may supervene with poor prognosis. This may necessitate amputation
Prediabetes, borderline diabetes, is a stage where the blood sugar levels are higher than normal and an alarm to long-term co-morbid complications in future. However, the good news is prediabetes is a reversible condition, a wakeup call to change the lifestyle and eating habits to avert type 2 diabetes.
Prediabetes does show certain symptoms of diabetes; the doctors term the condition as impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), putting a person in the high-risk zone of developing diabetes in years to follow. An estimate of 80 million Indians are suffering from prediabetes condition; majority of them can be prevented from developing diabetes, if diagnosed early and take on preventive measures.
High Altitudes and Diabetes
While many people enjoy skiing, hiking, trekking, climbing and sky gliding, feel a rush of adrenaline and consider risks as a thrilling factor, others find these acts intimidating and suffer from health conditions at heights due to altered atmosphere above. High altitudes such as airplane flight and mountain peaks have low oxygen levels, creating hypobaric conditions. At very high altitudes, beyond 3,000 metres (10,000 ft) the pressure is lower than that at sea level; thereby causing temporary discomfort such as ear pain and nose bleeding. People with diabetes also need to travel by air or take a pleasure trip to the mountains. People suffering from either type 1 or type 2 diabetes are advised to partake in physical activities, whether at normal sea levels or at high altitudes to keep their blood sugar levels in check.
Management of Diabetes
Unlike other diseases, diabetes is not a mere ailment, but a metabolic syndrome manifested because of multiple health conditions, needless to mention its co-morbid complications. Since last couple of decades, diabetes has gained a mammoth epidemic form globally. India is one of the leading countries among the rising statistics of diabetic population. In diabetes, the body tissues, precisely the pancreatic beta cells, lose capability to synthesize insulin or develop insulin resistance. Insulin is a hormone needed to assimilate sugar from food and convert it into energy through proper carbohydrate metabolic pathway. Due to lack of insulin, the blood sugar levels rise, prolonged condition of which causes various other health problems. Diabetes is a primary cause of eye, kidney and foot complications in wake of poorly controlled sugar levels; in acute cases, leads to lower extremity amputation too.
Diabetes mellitus and Oxidative Stress
Human body is persistently exposed to various elements that mediate formation of reactive species known as free radicals (ROS/RNS). Free radicals oxidise the cellular biochemical processes inside the tissues through their free unpaired electrons. The body has its endogenous anti-oxidation mechanism of neutralizing the free radicals and often cancel out the deleterious impacts. Exogenously, the body also acquires the anti-oxidants from the foodstuff regularly consumed. Neutralization of these free radical species is imperative to maintain body’s homeostasis; absence of which results in imbalance, that further creates a condition, oxidative stress. Under oxidative stress and unstable physiological conditions pathological problems develop, diabetes mellitus being one among those complications. There are different biomarkers for oxidative stress causing diabetes: - DNA damage and enzymes that trigger the carbohydrate metabolism pathway are altered in presence of reactive free radical species.
Stress and Diabetes
In a fast-paced society overburdened with various obligations, a majority of us live under constant stress at a breakneck speed. Finances and career, bonding and emotional needs take precedence over one’s free time, thereby taking a toll on the health. It becomes hard to stay away from family and social gatherings and equally important to match the necessities of a social life, thus getting embroiled into a vicious cycle of ascending corporate hierarchy, in turn overly taking up stress without volunteering for it. Stress is a collaterally endowed souvenir of the modern world, and so is diabetes.
Diabetes and joint problems are two different pathophysiological conditions. Pain in the joints may be due to weakness, reaction to drugs or injury, be able to be transitory or, long lasting. Diabetes, on the other hand is a chronic problem that causes decrease in insulin levels and causes a rise in sugar levels. The question is:
Is there a correlation between blood sugar levels and joint pains?
The answer is ‘yes’. Diabetes has widespread associated risks and complications that slowly yet steadily damage joints’ health too. As per reports from Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), nearly 50% of people who suffer from arthritis also have diabetes.
Diabetes and Ear Infection
Diabetic patients are susceptible to a range of infections in different body parts, including the ear. Diabetes has a big role in compromising the host immune system, giving rise to other life threatening problems, one being consistent ear pain due to middle ear infection or worse due to malignancy. In the long run, diabetics are at a greater risk of hearing loss than non-diabetics. The altered immune defence mechanisms triggered by high blood sugars in addition to delayed healing capacity of wounds increases the ears’ susceptibility to infections, especially among the elderly diabetic population due to aging also.
Diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease
Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative disease associated with irreversible dementia and is usually detected in the elderly population at a very late stage. More than 44 million people across the world suffer from dementia and the numbers are only expected to get worse in the future. Diabetes mellitus (DM) can induce very slow, progressive damage to the brain, thereby increasing the risk of cognitive disorders manifold. Elderly diabetic patients face mild to moderate loss in their cognitive skills, impairing their day-to-day life’s activities. There is a huge hazard of cognitive failure in elderly people who suffer from type I and type II diabetes as a result of Alzheimer’s and vascular dementia. Various epidemiological surveys have successfully established the link between diabetes and Alzheimer’s.
Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetes is an insulin related disease that entails a number of other diseases in itself. Insulin is a hormone released by the beta cells of the pancreas that helps the body to metabolize the sugar and fat in food. When due to some or multiple causes, insulin storage or release is impaired or the body response to insulin is resisted, people develop diabetes. There is however, no complete cure to the disease; only way to counter is to manage the problem through medication and adopt a healthy lifestyle.
Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Syndrome
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been growing rapidly and is associated with the body’s impaired metabolic functions in conjugation with insulin resistance, and further manifestation of Diabetes mellitus (DM). The main features of metabolic syndrome are excessive body weight, high fat deposition near abdomen (visceral obesity), high blood pressure and high levels of blood sugar. Also called as Syndrome X, deadly quartet or obesity dyslipidemia syndrome, metabolic syndrome affects nearly 1/3rd adults in the country and on a global scale too. Although no single study indicates it as a syndrome, yet clinically, metabolic syndrome is a uniform entity that exists due to a range of disassociated factors or is the resultant of various risk factors that are related through physiologically mechanisms.
Diabetes and Skin Complications
Diabetics have to deal with multiple health problems, apart from their regular medications to maintain normal glucose levels. The high blood sugar is in itself the root cause of all other complications. Another pain point in their checklist of coexisting illnesses is various skin conditions. While there are certain skin problems quite specific to people suffering from diabetes, some of the bacterial and fungal skin problems are common in non-diabetics too; however, the chances of their occurrence is higher among diabetics. The strategic key to control is early identification and treatment
Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disorders
Diabetes in most cases affects individuals in their middle age. Insulin secretion reduces with advancing age; insulin resistance is a stage earlier than the onset of Diabetes mellitus and generally brings along with it many cardiovascular risks. Cardiosvascular diseases (CVDs), by and large are the key causes of mortality in diabetic population. Besides morbidity and mortality, CVDs incur heavy cost in treatment of both diabetes and associated heart and other problems. Over the past few decades, breakthrough research and phenomenal advancement in treatment have enhanced the survival rate of people having stroke and heart attacks. However, with increasing incidences of diabetes the figures have not been encouraging in diabetics with CVDs due to fatality of associated risks.
Pulsatile Insulin Therapy
Diabetes is caused due to inappropriate carbohydrate metabolism and the deregulation of blood sugar is a manifestation of it; in other words, hyperglycaemia is a symptom and not a cause of diabetes while the diagnostic approach is towards treatment of hyperglycaemia rather than defining ways to mend metabolism. Though this aspect has never been contested yet, instead of addressing the root causes of diabetes, the clinical emphasis is more towards stabilizing blood sugar levels.
Diabetic Peripheral Vascular Diseases
Peripheral Vascular Diseases (PVD), blood and lymph vessel associated medical conditions have amplified risk of untimely occurrence, with the extent of severity and being more pronounced among diabetics. Though PVD covers any type of vascular system disorders of the peripheral body parts, yet the commonest forms are the Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) or lower extremity arterial diseases (LEAD). When there is blocking, narrowing or occlusion of the arteries due to formation of atherosclerotic plaques obstructing the smooth flow of blood, the chances of perilous attacks or strokes are magnified by manifolds. Demographical studies show people beyond 50 years of age suffer from blockages due to hyperglycaemia and hypertension. PAD is symptomatic to cardio and cerebro-vascular disorders too. Although PVDs have been well researched, additional burden due to diabetes, on PVDs remains less documented.
Diabetes and Eye Health
Can Diabetes damage the eyes? The answer is a yes, a person suffering from chronic long term diabetes should visit their eye doctor in case they notice any sort of changes in their eye sight or abnormally affected vision. Buying a new set of eye glasses on noticing blurred vision is fairly a wrong approach for a person having diabetes. Since diabetes is the perpetrator of eye problems while playing a key role in increasing the risk of partial or complete blindness manifold due to the lack of controlled blood sugar. Diabetic related eye problems result in conditions such as retinopathy, macular edema, glaucoma and cataract; in each of these conditions the vision is severed. Diabetes has a direct impact on retina that poses a threat to vision.
Diabetes and Foot Complications
Chronic high levels of glucose in blood leads to many other complications in patients suffering from diabetes. Due to lack of or poor control of blood sugar, nerves get damaged; thereby causing tingling, numbness or burning sensation of legs and feet. One of the major side effects of diabetes is slow physical and physiological changes of the foot, externally making the skin dry and cracked and internally damaging the nerves and blood vessels which in return incapacitate the legs and feet to feel an injury, cold or pain
Diabetes and Urological Problems
Diabetes, a metabolic disorder, is responsible for many other health complications; one being premature onset of urological disorders. The severity of urological problems markedly increases in diabetics and the incidence is higher with age. People with poorly controlled blood sugar levels are prone to urological problems such as loss of bladder control and urinary tract infections (UTIs) due to the damage caused by diabetes to the nerves and blood vessels. People diagnosed with diabetes and urological complications are generally overweight, have high cholesterol levels, smoke or lack routine physical activities. Statistically, more that 50% of diabetic patients, both men and women, experience a bladder dysfunction - a condition in which they have myriad of lower urinary tract clinical symptoms such as heightened urgency and frequency, incontinence (involuntary urination) and nocturia (urinate often past bed time). Various clinical studies have confirmed that frequently reported urological problem is bladder hypersensitivity.
Diabetes and Dental Problems
According to a recent article in the Times, India is home to one of the largest number of diabetics in the world and the annual figures are only increasing. The healthcare system is structured in such a way that doctors find it difficult to devote long hours on each patient. Diabetes is a complex disease, entailing thorough diagnosis, medication, healthy lifestyle, diet counselling, management and control of high blood sugar levels. Even for specialists, the challenge is to carefully study each patient’s history, to understand the coexisting disorders in order to effectively treat them. While people are aware of the long term risks associated with diabetes, like brain stroke, heart attack and foot ulcers, they might be surprised to learn that a large proportion of diabetics might also be afflicted by oral problems too.
More than a million of people in India are affected by stroke, a “brain attack” in which the blood flow to a particular portion of the brain is arrested. Stroke is one of the top five causes of death in US, 3rd leading cause in UK and key rationale to disability among the adults; quite a grim medical condition that impacts normal life completely and is fatal too. In 80% of the cases stroke occurs due to ischemia, cut off of blood supply due to a blockage and in others haemorrhage, a rupture of blood vessel supplying blood to brain. In either case due to absolute seize in oxygen supply the brain gets impaired of its functional and trigger death of blood cells. There are then mini-stroke attacks due to temporary ischemia termed as transient ischemic attack (TIA) that last for a couple of hours and should be considered as a warning bell for a full blown stroke in future.
The disease causing the damage to kidneys due to diabetes is known as diabetic nephropathy, a progressive condition affecting people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In extreme cases the disease causes absolute failure of kidney functioning and leads to morbid complications. More than 40% of the reported cases of renal failure are those who are also suffering from diabetes. In all leading western countries diabetic nephropathy is the major cause of chronic kidney disorder, significantly increasing the chances of mortality. The disease is more prevalent among Asians and Africans as compared to Caucasians. By early 1950s most of the long term kidney associated diseases were linked as a result of unremitting high blood glucose content; half of the reported patients suffering from diabetes for over 2 decades complained of the nephropathy related complications.
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